Supporting New Zealanders Living With Brain Injury


Mild TBI
In most people, symptoms resolve within 1-14 days. Some might have ongoing symptoms for up to 3 months, and in about 10% of people these symptoms persist for more than 6 months. This is known as Post Concussion Syndrome.

Moderate to Severe TBI
If a person has sustained a moderate to severe TBI, they are likely to have some level of physical, cognitive or behavioural disability. These include:


Physical problems

  • Mobility problems
  • Pain: headaches, soft tissue pain, touch sensitivity
  • Speech articulation, swallowing difficulties
  • Sensory difficulties: hearing, taste, smell, vision, touch, proprioception
  • Cognitive problems
    • Attention and memory problems
    • Reduced problem solving and speed of processing
    • Language difficulties
    • Cognitive inflexibility
    • Impaired insight
  • Emotional and behavioural problems
    • Anxiety and depression
    • Absence of behaviour
      • Lack of drive to do things
      • Desire to undertake but failure to initiate
    • Excess of behaviour
      • Agitation
      • Impulsivity
      • Perseveration: getting stuck
      • Verbal and physical aggression
  • Job loss/disruption
  • Difficulty with social interaction and family relationships


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